What is the dirt that has to be removed? It consists of: dust, soot (from the air), sweat, serum decomposition products, cosmetic and cosmetic remedies previously applied to the skin, and other substances transported in the air, which vary according to geographical location and immediate environment. All of the above substances stick to the thin, oily layer on the skins surface. Because the dirt is embedded in the oily layer, washing water is not sufficiently effective to clean the skin. Water is stripped of the oil and can not remove the oily layer of the skin surface containing the dirt particles. Anyone who has ever tried to wash oil or grease into their hands knows that water itself can not remove it. To effectively remove the dirt embedded in the oily layer on the surface of the skin, use soap.
The active ingredients in soaps consist of salts of different fatty acids.
Fatty acids commonly used in soap: Stearic acid, Palmitic acid, Oleic acid, Myristic acid, Lauric acid
With respect to its basic chemical composition, ordinary classical soap, known as hard soap or toilet bowl, contains sodium salts of fatty acids. These fatty acids derive from either animal or vegetable sources. Because of the soaps special molecular structure, the soap particles coat the fat drops where the dirt is embedded and allows them to be washed away from the skin with water. These soap structures, called micelles, cover fat (and dirt) particles so that they can be removed from the skin. The soap molecules are arranged in the form of micelles due to the electrical charge they carry. The soap mites surround the fat drop and thus allow removal from the skin.
Normally tap water contains calcium and magnesium. When regular soap is used with tap water, calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids are formed. These are tacky, non-soluble salts. The salt is on the skin surface and can lead to skin irritation. Another reason for common soap can cause skin irritation is that it has a high pH. PH for regular soap is between 9 and 10 (and sometimes higher than 10) higher than the normal skin pH (which is between 4 and 6.5). Consequently, the skins pH increases. However, a healthy skin has mechanisms to adjust its pH so that it shortens after it has been exposed to regular soap, its acidity returns to normal. PH returns to normal at any time from half an hour to two hours after soap has been used. However, in some cases sudden changes in pH can cause significant skin irritation. Therefore, the current trend in the cosmetics industry is to adjust the pH of detergents and other cosmetic preparations to that of normal skin.
Skin protection protects against infections
The acid in the skin is a protective mechanism in the body against bacterial and fungal infections. The natural pH of the skin acts as a protective syramantel. The PH factor is a numeric value that expresses the acid or alkalinity level of a solution. The acidity of a solution is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions in it. pH values vary from 0 to 14. The actual value of pH for a solution is derived from a logarithmic calculation based on the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution.
There are four groups of surfactants, such as: anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, amphoteric surfactants. The nature of each group is determined by its chemical charge. Each surfactant has different chemical properties that affect how it is cleaned.
Clarification of the term detergent
Some people include some detergents as defined by laundry detergents. But the term detergent actually refers to a soap of less soap. Generally, manufacturers avoid using the term detergent with skin cleanser or shampoo. They prefer to use the terms soap soap or surfactant. This is because the average person tends to associate the word detergent with the strong detergents used to clean the dish, etc. In fact, all laundry detergents perform their cleaning measures with the same principle. Synthetic soaps usually give less skin irritation than regular soap. The PH of synthetic soaps can be adapted to that of the normal skin by the addition of substances such as lactic acid or citric acid. Some of the soaps on the market are a combination of ordinary soaps and synthetic soaps. Therefore, they actually consist of common soaps consisting of sodium salts of fatty acids to which surfactants have been added. The resulting pH is somewhere between the two types of soaps, according to the amount of surfactant additions.